#### Dissertation Defense

# Computationally Efficient Steady-State Simulation Algorithms for Finite Element Models of Electric Machines

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The finite element method is a powerful tool for analyzing the magnetic characteristics of electric machines, taking account of both complex geometry and nonlinear material properties. When efficiency is the main quantity of interest, loss calculations can be affected significantly due to the development of eddy currents as a result of Faraday's law. These effects are captured by the periodic steady-state solution of the magnetic diffusion equation. A typical strategy for calculating this solution is to analyze an initial value problem over a time window of sufficient length so that the transient part of the solution becomes negligible.

Unfortunately, because the time constants of electric machines are much larger than the excitation period at peak power, the transient analysis strategy requires simulating the device over many periods to obtain an accurate steady-state solution.

Two other categories of algorithms exist for directly calculating the steady-state solution of the magnetic diffusion equation; shooting methods and the harmonic balance method. Shooting methods search for the steady-state solution by solving a periodic boundary value problem. These methods have only been investigated using first order numerical integration techniques. The harmonic balance method is a Fourier spectral method applied in the time dimension. The standard iterative procedures used for the harmonic balance method do not work well for electric machine simulations due to the rotational motion of the rotor.

This dissertation proposes several modifications to these steady-state algorithms which improve their overall performance. First, we demonstrate how shooting methods may be implemented efficiently using Runge-Kutta numerical integration methods with mild coefficient restrictions. Second, we develop a preconditioning strategy for the harmonic balance equations which is robust against large time constants, strong nonlinearities, and rotational motion. Third, we present an adaptive framework for refining the solutions based on a local error criterion which further reduces simulation time. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithms on a practical model problem. This comparison demonstrates the superiority of the improved steady-state analysis methods, and the harmonic balance method in particular, over transient analysis.